(11) Basses has retained just over 20 rented pubs and expects to convert them into managed outlets in due course. (189) As regards the general benefits arising from tied leases, recital 16 of the Regulation states that `consumers benefit from the improvements described above, in particular because they enjoy satisfactory quality at fair prices and conditions, while being able to choose between products from different producers (45)`. (35) Pubs compete only with others in their place. Overall, each sector has a local price for a particular type of package that includes the entire pub offer (facilities, atmosphere) and not just the price of beer. (46) It was also pointed out that the type definitions adopted are very broad and cover mainly all beer sold in the United Kingdom. The use of such a broad definition allows Basse to exclude the right to purchase beers of another type, as required by the regulation. Model-based observations gave the example of Caffrey`s and Tennants Velvet. It is also argued that Basse`s right to increase the volume of the undertaking by adding additional beer products to the current price list is incompatible with the requirement that the related products be indicated in the agreement and that the tenants are also not in a position to know the extent of the commitment at the beginning of the lease. One of the main reasons why clauses such as the clause at issue have not been found to be illegal per se is that they promote economic development. The clauses are seen as an incentive for tenants to open stores which, in turn, attract other tenants who I hope will enter the market.
The General Court refused to find that the restrictive agreement was devoid of any redemptive virtue and therefore found that it was not in itself inappropriate under the Sherman Antitrust Act. (127) Enforcement resulting from the breweries` networks takes different forms. Firstly, there is the vertical integration of British breweries up to retail. This vertical integration takes the form of managed houses and houses linked to the property. Secondly, the network also includes `vertical agreements` at one of two levels: either directly with retail businesses through credit loyalty, or, at wholesale level, through `binary` supply agreements, i.e. agreements with exclusive purchase obligations, minimum purchase obligations, must stick obligations, etc. with “traditional” wholesalers, non-brewery companies or other breweries in their wholesale function. The CCA fined a company that rented premises in an outlet centre near Prague for violating the Czech Law on the Protection of Competition. The company entered into lease agreements with the tenants that prevented them from operating in another outlet centre located in a given geographical area. In doing so, the owner wanted to ensure the exclusivity of his outlet center.
(58) During a rental negotiation during which an extension of the rental agreement is discussed, the tenant has no rent guarantee: the extension of the lease and therefore the continuation of the occupation of the tenant of the pub depend on the outcome of a rental negotiation. . . .